Network Interface Cards: Is a piece of a computer hardware designed to

allow computers to communicate over a computer network.

 Repeaters: Is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits

to it at a higher level or higher power.

Hubs: Contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is

copied to all the ports of the hub for transmission

 Bridges: It connects multiple network segments at the data link layer of

the OSI model. Bridges do not prommiscuosiliy copy traffic to all the


Switches: Is a device that performs switching specially it forwards and

Filters OSI layer 2 data grams between ports.

Routers: Are networking devices that forward data packets between

networks using headers and forwarding tables to determine the best

path to forward to the packets.